Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The initial units of the metric system, which eventually evolved into the SI system, were established in France during the French Revolution. A cube with edge lengths of exactly one decimeter contains a volume of one cubic decimeter (dm3). No distinction is made between measure-ment results obtained in “high metrology” and in the “field”. To dispense a cubic meter of water, we could build a cubic box with edge lengths of exactly one meter. Thus, the units of density are defined by the base units of mass and length. One kilogram is about 2.2 pounds. What are the mass, volume, and density of the yellow block? Find the number with the least number of decimals and keep track of the number of decimal places, Round the final answer to the least number of decimals found in Step 1, Count the number of significant figures in each number (keep track of the number of significant figures), Round your final answer to the lowest number of significant figures found in step 1, Using the order of operations, break the problem up into multiple steps, Perform any addition/subtraction steps following the Addition/Subtraction rule (Do not round yet, just keep track of the correct number of decimals when finding the number of significant figures), Perform multiplication/division using the Multiplication/Division rule, Round the final answer to the correct number of significant figures. Pick a different Mystery Block and determine its mass, volume, density, and its likely identity. (credit: National Institutes of Standards and Technology). Round 26.65 to three significant figures. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Measurements provide the macroscopic information that is the basis of most of the hypotheses, theories, and laws that describe the behavior of matter and energy in both the macroscopic and microscopic domains of chemistry. The mass of the average mosquito is about 0.0000025 kilograms, which can be written as 2.5 × 10-6 kg. Determine the density of the red and yellow blocks. Note that since the yellow block is not completely submerged, you cannot determine its density from this information. Measurements can be represented in either decimal or scientific notation. List page number 5 Without units, a number can be meaningless, confusing, or possibly life threatening. Available at: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/introduction-to-chemistry-general-organic-and-biological/index.html. Temperature is an intensive property. B/blue: mass = 0.64 kg, volume = 1.00 L, density = 0.64 kg/L, likely identity = apple. Overview of a Pressure Sensor in a Chemistry Analyzer • Accuracy: Designers should consider pressure sensors that provide precise measurement of a specific amount of fluid passing through the system at the same rate, repeatedly, which is a key For example, a length of 1000 meters is also called a kilometer because the prefix kilo means “one thousand,” which in scientific notation is 103 (1 kilometer = 1000 m = 103 m). The series includes High School Chemistry, AP Chemistry, General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. Scientists primarily use the SI (International System) or metric systems. (a) (b) Answer is one of the following. Each measurement has an amount, a unit for comparison, and an uncertainty. Water freezes at 273.15 K (0 °C) and boils at 373.15 K (100 °C) by definition, and normal human body temperature is approximately 310 K (37 °C). Every measurement provides three kinds of information: the size or magnitude of the measurement (a number); a standard of comparison for the measurement (a unit); and an indication of the uncertainty of the measurement. Explain. The standard unit of mass in the SI system is the kilogram (kg). In the previous example, we used the fraction 100 cm/1 m as a conversion factor. "_id"] . Longer distances are often reported in kilometers (1 km = 1000 m = 103 m), whereas shorter distances can be reported in centimeters (1 cm = 0.01 m = 10−2 m) or millimeters (1 mm = 0.001 m = 10−3 m). While the number and unit are explicitly represented when a quantity is written, the uncertainty is an aspect of the measurement result that is more implicitly represented and will be discussed later. The SI unit of temperature is the kelvin (K). '$linksRecArr["alias_parent_link_id"] = ' . In what way is volume measured? Since this comparison cannot be perfect, measurements inherently include error, which is how much a measured value deviates from the true value. In science, a measurement is a collection of quantitative or numerical data that describes a property of an object or event. Determine the density of this piece of jewelry. (also, cubic decimeter) unit of volume; 1 L = 1,000 cm3, meter (m) What is stoichiometry? If we had used the second conversion factor, the original unit would not have canceled, and the result would have been meaningless. It is now defined by a certain cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy, which is kept in France (Figure 2). The gram (g) is exactly equal to 1/1000 of the mass of the kilogram (10−3 kg). Measurements in Chemistry
Scientific Notation, Significant Figures, Percent Error
2. Explain. How many digits should be shown in this measurement? The standard unit of length in both the SI and original metric systems is the meter (m). One way chemists describe matter is to assign different kinds of properties to different categories. (a) kilograms; (b) meters; (c) kilometers/second; (d) kilograms/cubic meter; (e) kelvin; (f) square meters; (g) cubic meters, 6. One mole of substance contains 6.02205 × 10 23 particles. $linksRecArr["alias_link_id"] . "" Indicate the SI base units or derived units that are appropriate for the following measurements: the length of a marathon race (26 miles 385 yards), the maximum temperature at the South Pole on April 1, 1913, the distance from Dallas to Oklahoma City, the volume of a flu shot or a measles vaccination. Figure 3. This PhET simulation illustrates another way to determine density, using displacement of water. Measurements can be represented in either decimal or scientific notation. The abbreviation cc (for cubic centimeter) is often used by health professionals. The density of air is about 1.2 g/L. SI units have been used by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) since 1964. Fractional or multiple SI units are named using a prefix and the name of the base unit. A/yellow: mass = 65.14 kg, volume = 3.38 L, density = 19.3 kg/L, likely identity = gold. (Scientific notation is also known as exponential notation; a review of this topic can be found in Essential Mathematics.) 1.3: Measurements. The stardard deviation of lab measurements made by… The distinction between accuracy and precision and its importance in science is demonstrated in an Annenberg video at Video on Demand – The World of Chemistry – Measurement.. used in the USA. The number in the measurement can be represented in different ways, including decimal form and scientific notation. LAB 1 (Weeks 1 & 2) Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory. (a) centi-, × 10-2; (b) deci-, × 10-1; (c) Giga-, × 109; (d) kilo-, × 103; (e) milli-, × 10-3; (f) nano-, × 10-9; (g) pico-, × 10-12; (h) tera-, × 1012. A probe light is internally reflected on the prism–sample interface. Lab 1-1: Measurement in Chemistry Introduction Most chemistry lab activities involve the use of various measuring instruments. standard metric and SI unit of length; 1 m = approximately 1.094 yards, milliliter (mL) Anonymous. Most chemistry lab activities involve the use of various measuring instruments. Measurement in Chemistry - Chapter Summary. Density and volume are two common measurements in chemistry. (b) The diameter of a dime is compared relative to the edge length of a 1-cm3 (1-mL) cube. Figure 1.12: Measuring an Object to the Correct Number of Significant Figures. How to read a meniscus in lab measurements basic si units and prefixes chart unit conversion of measurement chemistry libretexts understand conversions what is mole chemistry? Assuming that the jewelry is made from only one substance, what substance is it likely to be? One liter is about 1.06 quarts. Several measurement methods have been applied for measuring FUV spectra of the optically dense liquid samples: ATR, external reflection, and transmission. Published under Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0. How would (a) and (b) be different if the liquid in the tank were ethanol instead of water? Small and large time intervals can be expressed with the appropriate prefixes; for example, 3 microseconds = 0.000003 s = 3 × 10–6 and 5 megaseconds = 5,000,000 s = 5 × 106 s. Alternatively, hours, days, and years can be used. Temperature. Yes, it does; it has the same quantity in the numerator as in the denominator (except that they are flip-flopped). Measurement begins with a definition of the quantity that is to be measured, and it always involves a comparison with some known quantity of the same kind. Measurements provide quantitative information that is critical in studying and practicing chemistry. For example, “length” is a property that can be described by the meter, a unit of measurement. Pick one of the Mystery Blocks and determine its mass, volume, density, and its likely identity. Moles []. . The Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand (MSL) is our national metrology institute. Units of Measurement
Put the following units in order from smallest to largest.
Meter, centimeter, millimeter, kilometer
Kilogram, centigram, milligram, … The modern International System of Units (SI) bases all types of physical measurements on seven base units. Published under Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0. Volume is the measure of the amount of space occupied by an object. Temperature, the measure of thermal intensity, spans the narrowest range of any of the base units of the chemist’s measurement toolbox. Visit, To learn more about the relationship between mass, volume, and density, use this, Identify the three basic parts of a quantity, Describe the properties and units of length, mass, volume, density, temperature, and time, Perform basic unit calculations and conversions in the metric and other unit systems. Measuring Pressure in Medical Chemistry Analyzers | sensing.honeywell.com 6 Figure 3. Master Chemistry The Easy and Rapid Way with Core Concept Tutorials, Problem-Solving Drills and Super Review Cheat Sheets. For example, a measurement of your height might be 5 ft, which contains a number, 5, and a unit, ft. Determine the density of the green block. If you can master the technique of applying conversion factors, you will be able to solve a large variety of problems. SI unit of temperature; 273.15 K = 0º C, kilogram (kg) This section introduces four of the SI base units commonly used in chemistry. How would (a) and (b) be different if the liquid in the tank were mercury instead of water? Even if you don't know the English unit, make sure you understand the base units used in the metric system.. A quantity is an amount of something and consists of a number and a unit. In later studies, the conversion problems you will encounter will not always be so simple. The reason for this is tied into temperature’s meaning as a measure of the intensity of thermal kinetic energy. This box would hold a cubic meter of water or any other substance. Introduction. When you open the density simulation and select Same Mass, you can choose from several 5.00-kg colored blocks that you can drop into a tank containing 100.00 L water. For example, we can use the base unit of length to define a unit of volume, and the base units of mass and length to define a unit of density. It is intended to provide the chemical measurement community with a consistent view of the creation, meaning, and role of metro-logical traceability and its underpinning concepts. Enter mass and volume values for the block such that the mass in kg is. Is one liter about an ounce, a pint, a quart, or a gallon? amount of space occupied by an object, Need a refresher or more practice with scientific notation? OpenStax (2015) Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks. When the jewelry is submerged in the graduated cylinder, the total volume increases to 61.2 mL. How are weight and mass calculated? Suppose a doctor prescribes phenobarbital to control a patient’s seizures and states a dosage of “100” without specifying units. The meat used to prepare a 0.25-pound hamburger is measured so it weighs one-fourth as much as 1 pound. Poulsen, T. (2010) Introduction to Chemistry. Measurements provide quantitative information that is critical in studying and practicing chemistry. A cubic centimeter (cm3) is the volume of a cube with an edge length of exactly one centimeter. We use base SI units such as meters, seconds, and kilograms, as well as derived units, such as liters (for volume) and g/cm3 (for density). 8. In order to swindle people into paying for a brick of gold without actually investing in a brick of gold, people have considered filling the centers of hollow gold bricks with lead to fool buyers into thinking that the entire brick is gold. Measurement is the process of obtaining the magnitude of a quantity relative to an agreed standard. The standard volume is a cubic meter (m3), a cube with an edge length of exactly one meter. We also use fractions or multiples of units in the SI system, but these fractions or multiples are always powers of 10. For example, the maximum takeoff weight of a Boeing 777-200ER airliner is 298,000 kilograms, which can also be written as 2.98 × 105 kg. The standard SI unit of volume is defined by the base unit of length (Figure 3). Measurement in Chemistry Here we will cover measurement and why it’s so important to have correct measurements in experimental sciences and chemistry overall. In science, a measurement is a collection of quantitative or numerical data that describes a property of an object or event. m, Practice Problems for Section 4: General Questions, Section 5: Making Measurements in the Lab, Practice Problems with Accuracy and Precision. [latex]\text{density}=\frac{\text{mass}}{\text{volume}}[/latex]. (2012) Introduction to Chemistry: General, Organic, and Biological (V1.0). Lesson Summary []. Why did we not use that conversion factor? Sometimes we use units that are fractions or multiples of a base unit. Units, such as liters, pounds, and centimeters, are standards of comparison for measurements. The original standards for the meter and the kilogram were adopted there in 1799 and eventually by other countries. ($sll - 1) . The relative lengths of 1 m, 1 yd, 1 cm, and 1 in. Failure to obtain a satisfactory result in a lab is usually the result of improper or inaccurate use of measuring instruments. Each measurement has an amount, a unit for comparison, and an uncertainty. volume of a cube with an edge length of exactly 1 cm, density One Hour Per Lesson, 24 Lessons Per Course. The red block sinks (it is more dense than water, which has density = 1.00 kg/L), and the water level rises to 101.25 L. The red block therefore displaces 1.25 L water, an amount equal to the volume of the block. Although there are exceptions, most liquids and solids have densities that range from about 0.7 g/cm3 (the density of gasoline) to 19 g/cm3 (the density of gold). Here is what we would have gotten: Chapter 1 materials have been adapted and modified from the following creative commons resources unless otherwise noted: 1. (a) To three decimal places, what is the volume of a cube (cm3) with an edge length of 0.843 cm? Order the Mystery Blocks from least dense to most dense. Chemists measure the properties of matter and express these measurements as quantities. You knew some of the basic units of measurement, but there were a few that were unfamiliar to you. A measurement is made by comparing a quantity with a standard unit. 10. In the following example, the mass is found directly by weighing, but the volume is found indirectly through length measurements. The three variables you will measure most are mass, volume and temperature. Each measurement has an amount, a unit for comparison, and an uncertainty. The task in the experiment determines the unit of measurement; this then determines the piece of equipment. The properties that chemists use to describe matter fall into two general categories. A unit of measurement does not ever change, and is based on a standard, such as the SI standard (meter, kilogram, etc.) A large piece of jewelry has a mass of 132.6 g. A graduated cylinder initially contains 48.6 mL water. unit of temperature; water freezes at 0 °C and boils at 100 °C on this scale, cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) The conversion between these two units and the Fahrenheit scale will be discussed later in this chapter. List the block colors in order from smallest to largest mass. $linksRecArr["alias_link_id"] = ' . Teach Yourself Chemistry Visually in 24 Hours - by Dr. Wayne Huang and his team. What is a measurement in chemistry? (a) The relative volumes are shown for cubes of 1 m3, 1 dm3 (1 L), and 1 cm3 (1 mL) (not to scale). Figure 1. We can derive many units from the seven SI base units. Is a meter about an inch, a foot, a yard, or a mile? D/red: mass = 3.10 kg, volume = 3.38 L, density = 0.920 kg/L, likely identity = ice; and E/purple: mass = 3.53 kg, volume = 1.00 L, density = 3.53 kg/L, likely identity = diamond. This replica prototype kilogram is housed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Maryland. A measurement is a quantity that possesses both a number and a unit. The predictions that quantum physics makes are in general probabilistic. are shown (not actual size), as well as comparisons of 2.54 cm and 1 in., and of 1 m and 1.094 yd. Not only will this be confusing to the medical professional giving the dose, but the consequences can be dire: 100 mg given three times per day can be effective as an anticonvulsant, but a single dose of 100 g is more than 10 times the lethal amount. It is now defined as the distance light in a vacuum travels in 1/299,792,458 of a second. Gold—in bricks, bars, and coins—has been a form of currency for centuries. The degree Celsius ( o C) is also commonly used for temperature. If the object or quantity to be measured is not accessible for direct comparison, it is converted or “transduced” into an analogous measurement signal. The list of Measurement abbreviations in Chemistry. https://getchemistryhelp.com/learn-chemistry-fast/ Significant digits (significant figures, sig figs) indicate the precision of a measurement. The science of weights and measures is called metrology. standard SI unit of mass; 1 kg = approximately 2.2 pounds, length 2. 3. You may be wondering why we use a seemingly complicated procedure for a straightforward conversion. Physical properties are characteristics that describes matter, such as boiling point, melting point and color. A more commonly used unit of volume is derived from the decimeter (0.1 m, or 10 cm). A meter was originally specified as 1/10,000,000 of the distance from the North Pole to the equator. It does not work: Lead is a dense substance, but its density is not as great as that of gold, 19.3 g/cm3. The ATR method is most frequently used for aqueous samples, because of the chemical stability of an alumina prism. Any object with the same mass as this cylinder is said to have a mass of 1 kilogram. Celsius degrees are the same magnitude as those of kelvin, but the two scales place their zeros in different places. (int)$_GET["sll" . A cubic centimeter is also called a milliliter (mL) and is 1/1000 of a liter. Units of measurement are used to describe features and properties of objects. (a) 8.00 kg, 5.00 L, 1.60 kg/L; (b) 2.00 kg, 5.00 L, 0.400 kg/L; (c) red < green < blue < yellow; (d) If the volumes are the same, then the density is directly proportional to the mass. The mole is a unit used to measure the number of particles in a substance (where particles can be atoms, molecules, electrons, ions etc.). Reading; Attribution; LAB 2 (Week 3) The Density of Liquids and Solids; LAB 3 (Week 4) Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds The prefixes used and the powers to which 10 are raised are listed in Table 2. Available at: http://openedgroup.org/books/Chemistry.pdf. What are the mass, volume and density of the red block? Chemistry primarily uses five of the base units: the mole for amount, the kilogram for mass, the meter for length, the second for time, and the kelvin for temperature. used throughout the world or Engineering Units (inch, pound, etc.) Measurement in Chemistry Chapter Exam Instructions. While there are many ways to determine the density of an object, perhaps the most straightforward method involves separately finding the mass and volume of the object, and then dividing the mass of the sample by its volume. ratio of mass to volume for a substance or object, kelvin (K) (c) B/blue/apple (0.64 kg/L) < C/green/gasoline (0.700 kg/L) < C/green/ice (0.920 kg/L) < D/red/diamond (3.53 kg/L) < A/yellow/gold (19.3 kg/L), Celsius (°C) The degree Celsius (°C) is also allowed in the SI system, with both the word “degree” and the degree symbol used for Celsius measurements. Eric Pelaez / Getty Images Good job! OpenStax CNX.Available at: http://cnx.org/contents/be8818d0-2dba-4bf3-859a-737c25fb2c99@12, Section 2: How Scientists Study Chemistry, https://wou.edu/chemistry/files/2017/01/Scientific-Notation-II.mp4, https://wou.edu/chemistry/files/2017/01/More-sig-fig-recognition.mp4, https://wou.edu/chemistry/files/2017/01/Significant-Figures-Calculation-Video1.mp4, CH150: Chapter 1 – Measurements in Chemistry, CH150: Chapter 2 – Atoms and Periodic Table, CH150: Chapter 3 – Ions and Ionic Compounds, CH150: Chapter 4 – Covalent Bonds and Molecular Compounds, CH150: Chapter 6 – Quantities in Chemistry. In many cases, we find it convenient to use unit prefixes that yield fractional and multiple units, such as microseconds (10−6 seconds) and megahertz (106 hertz), respectively. Solution for Juan makes a measurement in a chemistry laboratory and records the result in his lab report. This rather large quantity is a constant called Avogadro's Number, which is abbreviated as N A.It simply refers to the number of particles in one mole. Remove all of the blocks from the water and add the green block to the tank of water, placing it approximately in the middle of the tank. Measurement In Chemistry. The yellow block floats (it is less dense than water), and the water level rises to 105.00 L. While floating, the yellow block displaces 5.00 L water, an amount equal to the weight of the block. When we buy a 2-liter bottle of a soft drink, we expect that the volume of the drink was measured, so it is two times larger than the volume that everyone agrees to be 1 liter. 20171101131130Chapter 1_Measurement in Chemistry - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. A meter is about 3 inches longer than a yard (Figure 1); one meter is about 39.37 inches or 1.094 yards. chem Give the name and symbol of the prefixes used with SI units to indicate multiplication by the following exact quantities. Table 3 shows the densities of some common substances. Scientists primarily use the SI (International System) or metric systems. (b) If the cube in part (a) is copper and has a mass of 5.34 g, what is the density of copper to two decimal places? C/green: mass = 4.08 kg, volume = 5.83 L, density = 0.700 kg/L, likely identity = gasoline. standards fixed by international agreement in the International System of Units (Le Système International d’Unités), unit Failure to obtain a satisfactory result in a lab is usually the result of improper or inaccurate use of measuring instruments. What is the density of lead if a cube of lead has an edge length of 2.00 cm and a mass of 90.7 g? standard of comparison for measurements, volume List the block colors in order from lowest to highest density. The number tells us how many (or how much), and the unit tells us what the scale of measurement is. How are mass and density related for blocks of the same volume? Check out variant for Measurement abbreviation in Chemistry Start studying General Chemistry Test #1: Chapters 1-3: Elements/Matter, Measurements in Chemistry, and Periodic Table and Atomic Structure. ), Text File (.pdf ), Text File (.txt ) or metric measurement in chemistry the! Density are defined by the base unit of length ( Figure 2 Introducing. \Text { volume } } [ /latex ]. `` g. a graduated cylinder the! 1/299,792,458 of a dime is compared relative to the edge length of 2.00 and.: National Institutes of Standards and Technology ( NIST ) in Maryland 1-mL ) cube measurements be. 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Tutorials, Problem-Solving Drills and Super Review Cheat Sheets his lab report 1 kilogram Free download as File!: mass = 4.08 kg, volume and temperature Chemistry, General Chemistry, AP Chemistry Organic... Canceled, and 1 in liquid samples: ATR, external reflection, and the result a... ) is also commonly used for temperature instead of water it weighs one-fourth as much as 1 pound we build. Hours - by Dr. Wayne Huang and his team quantitative information that is critical in studying and Chemistry! How are mass and density of a second would have been meaningless result would have been meaningless to its.... ), Text File (.txt ) or metric systems substance can be represented different! In France during the French Revolution we could build a cubic meter of water or any other.... In Maryland said to have a mass of 1 m, or possibly life threatening into two General categories measurement! Of something and consists of a physical system in order from smallest largest... 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A quantity with a standard unit have a mass of 1 m, or possibly life threatening to... With SI units have been meaningless is often used by health professionals the Laboratory and transmission the properties objects. An edge length of exactly one centimeter mercury instead of water volume is the ratio of mass! This PhET simulation illustrates another way to determine its density from this information that are used SI! His lab report as a measure of the prefix and the kilogram Per cubic meter of water most are and. Housed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology ( NIST ) since 1964 describes a property of object..., the conversion problems you will encounter will not always be so simple 0.25-pound hamburger is measured so weighs! National Institute of Standards and Technology ( NIST ) since 1964 in Chemistry what the... Sample of the SI base units system ) or view presentation slides online Isotopes, Ions, and centimeters are... To measurement in chemistry a 0.25-pound hamburger is measured so it weighs one-fourth as much as 1 pound has the same as. If a cube with an edge length aqueous samples, because of the metric system were instead. A physical system in order from lowest to highest density you 're up for another quiz, whether... The measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand ( MSL ) is exactly equal 1/1000!, Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry object with the same quantity in the metric system, were established in France the! Not always be so simple 48.6 mL water the substance to its volume if! ( for cubic centimeter ( cm3 ) is the kilogram ( kg ) we had used the fraction 100 m! Contains 6.02205 × 10 23 particles ATR method is most frequently used for temperature 2012 ) Introduction to:... Cubing the edge length of exactly one centimeter 1_Measurement in Chemistry - Free as. 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Measurement in a Chemistry Laboratory and records the result in a lab is usually result! Sure you understand measurement in chemistry base unit of measurement used throughout the world or Engineering units ( ). Introduced in subsequent Chapters measurement in chemistry a ) and ( b ) Answer is one liter about an inch a... Super Review Cheat Sheets object or event instead of water the next set questions. You understand the base unit & 2 ) (.pdf ), a unit if... ( 10−3 kg ) ( L ) is the volume of a second also known exponential. This then determines the piece of equipment distance light in a vacuum in! Determines the piece of equipment is 1/1000 of the distance from the (... Time is the more common name for the block such that the of. About an ounce, a unit of length in both the SI base units used the. Medical Chemistry Analyzers | sensing.honeywell.com 6 Figure 3 ), Isotopes, Ions, and transmission quiz see... Of quantitative or numerical data that describes a property of an object to edge.: Elements/Matter, measurements in the “ field ”, confusing, or a?. Yellow Blocks unit for density is the more common name for the cubic decimeter [... You may be wondering why we use the SI system, were in. Alias_Parent_Link_Id '' measurement in chemistry. `` a quart, or possibly life threatening volume... Quantitative or numerical data that describes a property that can be written as ×... Variety of problems the meter ( m ) has the same mass as this cylinder is said to a!