One hypothesis on this point, viz. A book of the New Testament, a letter from the Apostle Paul to the Christians of Galatia. pl.n. The very reason why he is now deemed their enemy is, because he is the fixed representative of the same unchanging truth, at his first visit, his second, and in this epistle. IV. Such is the prevailing meaning of the word, adjective and substantive, in the New Testament; and it is followed here, as usually, by the genitive of person (Sophocles, Ajax, 500; Demosthenes, de Legat. to them. There are frequent instances of its use with the genitive, as “fullness of the earth, blessing, time, the sea, Christ,” in all which it denotes the plenitude or completeness which characterizes the nouns. The verb ἀτενίζω, which is referred to in proof, will not bear out this conjecture. ; and also Calvin, Beza, Fritzsche, Schrader, Hammond, Reiche. Have I now? The participle probably means simply “speaking the truth”-referring to oral address, and not to upright conduct. ῎ακανθαι καὶ σκόλοπες ὀδύνας σημαίνουσι διὰ τὸ ὀξύ, Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 3.33, p. 280, vol. I can see no reason here for making the clause interrogative: the rendering I am therefore become an enemy to you is quite in harmony with the context, which assumes the existence of some actual estrangement. τίς οὖν ἦν ὁ μακαρισμὸς ὑμῶν; μαρτυρῶ γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι εἰ δυνατὸν τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ὑμῶν ἐξορύξαντες ἐδώκατέ μοι—“Ye know how, on account of infirmity of the flesh, I preached the gospel unto you at the first. He asks them if they have suddenly become enemies because he is (still) speaking the truth. That the speaking of unwelcome truth creates enmity has passed into a proverb. So have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? Bipont. See on the verse. See Acta Apost. i. p. 4, ed. This conscious link between the thorn and the revelation was the appointed means of keeping the apostle humble: what he had enjoyed might have elated him, but it had a sting left behind it which ever abased and tortured him. . The fool and sinner hate, the righteous love, faithful reproof (Psalms 141:5; Proverbs 9:8). Whatever on any pretence or to any degree endangered truth met at once from him with vehement and persistent opposition, no matter what hostility, misapprehension, or prejudice his fidelity might create against himself. 2 The heir is subject to guardians and trustees until the time set by his father. In most of the biblical texts, and certainly here in Galatians 5:16, the meaning of the spirit is the Spirit of God (although the reader should be aware that a small percentage of commentaries interpret this as the renewed human spirit). But from that stoning there was an immediate recovery, and it could scarcely be the “thorn in the flesh.” See Introduction. Nor can the interpretation of δἰ ἀσθένειαν in the paper referred to be sustained. KJV, ©1769. If this vision took place at his first visit to Jerusalem three years after his conversion, the dates are more in harmony, though the chronology of the apostle's life is very uncertain. Galatia (/ ɡ ə ˈ l eɪ ʃ ə /; Ancient Greek: Γαλατία, Galatía, "Gaul") was an ancient area in the highlands of central Anatolia, roughly corresponding to the provinces of Ankara and Eskişehir, in modern Turkey.Galatia was named after the Gauls from Thrace (cf. πῇξαι ἀνὰ σκολόππεσσι,-or for impaling a person, Eurip. So contrary was it to all experience, so little was he under the guidance of ordinary consciousness, and of the common influences of space and time, that he could not tell whether he was in the body or out of the body. But he might bear about a sharp-pointed stake in his flesh which no power could extract, and which was producing a rankling festering wound and torture. Clement. Galatians definition is - an argumentative letter of St. Paul written to the Christians of Galatia and included as a book in the New Testament. The thorn was employed by this evil spirit as a means of buffeting him. (1.) To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use the convenient, Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. He had not been counted their enemy at his first visit: he implies that he had since then, before his now writing; so that the occasion of his telling them the unwelcome truth must have been at his second visit (Acts 18:23 : see 'Introduction'). 2. May not this help to explain the allusion in 1 Thessalonians 2:18, “We would have come unto you, but Satan hindered us?” This buffeting might produce nervous tremors, apprehensions, and a chronic lowness of spirits. per dolorem, ut aiunt, auriculae vel capitis (De Pud. Translate, 'So then am I become (in your eyes) your enemy by telling you the truth?' who is offended, and I burn not?” Had the change of feeling toward him been only characteristic caprice, he would have cared less; but it involved a departure from the gospel which he had proclaimed, and which was divine alike in origin, substance, and results. God breathes His spirit or breath into man giving him life. Augustine, on the verse in Galatians, says, Neque respuistis, ut non susciperetis communionem periculi mei. An old and prevailing opinion refers it to some affection of the head. Galatians 4:16 Paul, here, is trying to get the Galatians to come back to the gospel after going astray. v. Opera, Gaume. because, &c. = dealing truly with. In these examples from Luke-and twice the reference is to Paul, Luke 13:9, Luke 23:1 -the look is one of earnest and strong vision, and therefore the occurrence of the same verb in Luke 23:1 cannot form any ground for the opinion which we are controverting; for in making a virtual apology the apostle does not say, “Pardon me, I did not see,” but “I wist not”-perhaps = I forgot at the moment—“that he was the high priest.” The allusion also to the “large letters” in which he wrote the Galatian Epistle, and to the marks of the Lord Jesus which he bore, admit of a different and satisfactory interpretation. Opera, ed. In Galatians 4:16, Paul says, 16 Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth? Still, though on such a computation the dates might thus be brought to correspond, the two accounts are by no means in unison; for the apostle “utters” what he saw in the temple, and recounts also what he “heard.” Wieseler argues, indeed, that as the description of the rapture follows close on the reference to the escape from Damascus, its date must naturally be assigned to the first visit to Jerusalem: Galatians 1:18. When was it that he so spoke the truth as to incur this enmity? Gregory the Great describes the apostle after his rapture thus: Ad semetipsum rediens contra carnis bellum laborat.-Moral. Gregory of Nazianzus, at the end of his twentieth Oration, solemnly appeals to his departed brother- ὦ θεῖα καὶ ἱερὰ κεφαλή-to arrest some malady in him which he calls by Paul's words, σκόλοπα τῆς σαρκός. 4. cap. See Howson, Lectures on St. Paul, p. 72, 2d edition. Acts 18:23, it is said. Galatians 4:16 Context. Jerome, too, says: Si apostolus . Galatians 4:4-7 EXEGESIS: THE CONTEXT: Whereas many of Paul’s letters were written to churches in a particular city, such as Rome or Corinth, this letter was written to “the assemblies of Galatia”—a region in the central part of what we know today as Turkey. Others identify the rapture with the trance in the temple, and the vision and commission connected with it, which himself describes in Acts 22:17-20, as Spanheim, Lightfoot, Rinck, Schrader, Osiander, Wieseler. If his nervous system had been weakened by previous manifestations, might not this last and grandest honour bring on cerebral exhaustion, paralysis, or epileptic seizure, with all those results on eye, feature, tongue, and limb which are so often and so shockingly associated with it? Others translate: ‘Therefore (because ye loved me so much) I have become (in the opinion of the Judaizing teachers) your enemy—by telling you the truth.’ In the Judaizing pseudo-Clementine writings Paul is called an ‘enemy,’ and ‘lawless’ or ‘antinomian’ Some substitute ‘hateful to you’ for ‘jour enemy’ (taking the Greek word in the passive sense, as Romans 5:10; Romans 11:18). The change was neither in the truth nor its apostle, but in themselves. So then have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? An “horror of great darkness” fell upon Abraham when a vision was disclosed to him (Genesis 15:13). nam tradunt eum gravissimum capitis dolorem saepe perpessum. KJ21. What does galatians mean? 2.895. The beloved disciple who had lain in His bosom says, “When I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead.” Revelation 1:17. While he vindicates himself from any blame in the unhappy difference between them, he indirectly censures their ingratitude. His aim then is, not so much to upbraid, as to move them to repentance. Nay, so far as the record tells, it could not be said of him, that during the riot he was in anguish or felt himself in danger. This estrangement is attributed to plain speaking which had given offence to the disciples. (2.) The apostle does not disguise its tendency, though he does not unfold its nature or give it any specific name. He then comes at length to his inner experiences, connected with his highest glory and with his deepest and most trying weaknesses. Therefore, at his second visit. Even there the result is dwelt upon, but the nature of the infliction is not clearly described. The person of Christ was usually the object of the vision, and the disclosure of His will the theme of the revelation. At a later period, as we have seen, the Judaizers called him ὁ ἐχθρὸς ἄνθρωπος. Galatians definition, a book in the New Testament, written to the Christians in Galatia. Abbreviation: Gal. Primasius gives it as an alternative, alii dicunt titillatione carnis stimulatum. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. 3 So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things of the world. He had been describing many of his outer sufferings, and the last of them, referred to so solemnly and under an adjuration, must have made an indelible impression on him-the kind of ignominy and humiliation attaching to his undignified mode of escape from Damascus—“through a window, in a basket was I let down by the wall.” He almost shrinks from telling the adventure: such is its nature that he is afraid that his sober statement may not be credited, and therefore it is prefaced, “The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed for evermore, knoweth that I lie not.” Perhaps, however, these words belong to the previous catalogue of sufferings, or they form a preface to some other statements, which after all have been withheld. This ancient and traditionary notion of some physical ailment is the correct one, though of its special character we are necessarily ignorant. A third theory refers the thorn to some inner temptation which fretted and distracted him. So then have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? It is quite possible that the phrase “your enemy” ought to be placed, as it wore, in inverted commas, and attributed to the Judaising sectaries—”your enemy,” as these false teachers call me. Another result in such circumstances might be, that strong craving for human sympathy which is often manifested by him. Their feeling toward him had been that of extreme kindness and indulgence, and he might ask, Have I, who once was the object of your intense affection, become the object of your hatred? viii. Nor can the thorn be anything external to him, such as persecution, or any form of fierce and malignant opposition on the part of enemies, or of one singled out as ἄγγελος σατᾶν, like Alexander the coppersmith, or Hymenaeus, or Philetus, who are instanced by Chrysostom. Paris 1630. 4 I mean that the heir, as long as he is a child, is no different from a slave, [] though he is the owner of everything, 2 but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by his father. Nor in this letter, for they have not as yet read it. The genitive is probably used because ἐχθρός is a virtual substantive-Am I become the hated of you? Am I become your enemy, because I tell you the truth? So is it with backsliders and apostates; the truth and its minister they once loved they often now dread and hate. In the chapter he asks why they went back to their old habits, and reminds them of when he visited them. p. 91, vol. It was very natural in those days, when the gospel everywhere encountered fanatical opposition and numbered its martyrs by hundreds, to suppose that the eager apostle, so often thwarted and maligned, so often suffering and maltreated, summed up all elements of antagonism into the figure of a thorn in the flesh, and personified them as a messenger of Satan buffeting him. Greg. Galatians 4:16 "Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?" Amid all his enthusiasm and chivalry, he needed frequent comfort and assurance; so that we find the voice saying to him at Corinth, “Be not afraid;” in his confinement in Jerusalem, “Be of good cheer;” and during the voyage to Rome, “Fear not.” Acts 18:9; Acts 23:11; Acts 27:24. For in Acts 23:1 ἀτενίσας characterizes the apostle's act before he began his address, and describes naturally a sweeping and attentive scrutiny, but with no implied defect of vision. According to one probable hypothesis, the Epistle to the Galatians and the second Epistle to the Corinthians were written about the same period, and it is a natural conclusion that the reference in the two preceding paragraphs is to the same sharp distressing visitation. His annotator Nicetas describes it as a disease of the kidneys or of the joints- ποδάγρα, adding that some explained Paul's thorn in the same way. in Psalms 58 p. 816, vol. The year of his conversion cannot be definitely fixed, opinions varying from the years 33 to 42 A.D. Galatians 4:1-31—Read the Bible online or download free. Lastly, if the thorn in the flesh be identified with defective vision produced by the light which blinded him at his conversion, then, as we have said, the proposed identification is contradicted by the apostle's own chronology in 2 Corinthians 12:2. 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